Doja Cat, Dr. Luke, and the Murky Ethics of Pop

Eras of music are normally defined by individual appears. The ’80s had gated reverb, the aughts experienced Timbaland’s beats, and the early 2020s have experienced the froggy, rasping splendor of Doja Cat’s voice. On a slew of recent hits and on her new, third album, World Her, the 25-year-outdated rapper and singer proceeds to confirm she has an really now sensibility: steeped in on the web humor, thrilled by actual physical pleasure, and adaptable to no matter what sound or condition receives thrown at her. She also carries on to create upon the legacy of her viral hit “Mooo!” by creating a selection of amusing comparisons amongst meals and intercourse.

Doja Cat’s entertaining increase, however, has enabled something uncomfortable: the rehabilitation of Dr. Luke’s vocation. In other words, it has enabled the audio industry—which was notoriously sluggish to respond to #MeToo—to quietly shift previous one of the most well known sexual-abuse accusations in its latest heritage.

The producer born Lukasz Gottwald signed Doja Cat to his file label and creation company 8 decades in the past, and he has co-made quite a few of her most popular singles. Formerly, he’d been popular for smashes this sort of as Kelly Clarkson’s “Since U Been Gone” (2004), Miley Cyrus’s “Party in the U.S.A.” (2009), and Katy Perry’s “Teenage Dream” (2010), but that very hot streak finished in 2014, when his onetime protégé, the singer Kesha, accused him of rape and abuse in a civil suit that sought to void her deal. Substantially of the new music sector appeared to rally about Kesha while Luke professed his innocence and properly defended versus her go well with on specialized grounds. Today, the underlying issues elevated by the allegations remain unresolved, nevertheless he appears to have returned to electrical power-player standing by performing with charismatic younger performers this sort of as Saweetie, The Child Laroi, and, most considerably, Doja Cat.

Dr. Luke’s apparent comeback cements the concept that “cancel lifestyle,” when it comes to mainstream audio, is additional of a theoretical strategy than an true method that enforces norms and values. Identify virtually any musician who at some place motivated thunderstorms of outrage, whether for allegedly committing violence or indicating slurs, and their vocation probably finished up surviving mainly because of the catchiness of their music. Much more than a ten years soon after assaulting Rihanna, Chris Brown continues to be inescapable on radio—and just this earlier thirty day period, another woman accused him of hitting her. (Brown did not answer to a ask for for remark.) Before this year, the place star Morgan Wallen was caught on tape saying the N-term, apologized, and however saw his level of popularity soar. File companies may discuss about supporting social justice, but in the conclusion, if an artist proves salable, that artist is heading to keep acquiring bought.

Listeners can be complicit in that calculation—but only to an extent. For case in point, when a Luke-composed song these types of as Doja Cat and SZA’s “Kiss Me More” hooks audiences, that is not essentially an endorsement of Luke. Most people today have no idea who sings the songs they hum along to at CVS, a great deal less what that singer—or their producer—may have done outside the house of the recording booth. Radio programmers, label industry experts, and playlist makers are the types who have the potential to widely disseminate his audio. The passivity of the public just gives them address in exercising that skill.

But listeners really don’t have to aid return Dr. Luke’s ability to him. Although Doja Cat, Saweetie, and other performers get fame with tracks produced by him, persons who are anxious by the allegations could truly feel gaslit by common society. They may perhaps wrestle with the moral and factual thicket that the songs business enterprise has decided on to ignore. They may experience it reductive to publish off Doja Cat mainly because of a man guiding the scenes who signed her to a offer before any allegations surfaced. Nevertheless a very important truth of the matter remains: When leisure industries gain from comebacks by troubling figures, individual shoppers are a person of the previous strains of resistance.


The civil complaint Kesha filed in 2014 laid out a narrative that’s common in pop mythology: A strong man allows mould a talented young woman into a star though allegedly belittling, managing, or abusing her to the point the place she cannot choose it any more. The aspects generally differ, but the general public has turn into accustomed to cheering for famous girls to get freed from tyrannical male collaborators. At times, as was the circumstance with Tina Turner and Ike Turner, violence and sexual assault are aspect of the tale. In other cases—see Mariah Carey and Tommy Mottola, or what’s allegedly occurring involving Britney Spears and her father, Jamie Spears, correct now—the contours are extra about economic and psychological command. In any scenario, quite a few such tales are shared with the hope of protecting against other generations of gals from undergoing comparable trials.

Kesha’s account about Luke involves the two physical assault and extra delicate manipulation. The most shocking claims had been that he drugged her, experienced sexual intercourse with her even though she was unconscious, and then threatened to damage her lifetime if she spoke out. But her lawsuit also referenced insults, intimidation, and thoughts video games. No judge has at any time dominated on the veracity of the statements in Kesha’s match. On Twitter, Dr. Luke professed his innocence by saying, “I didn’t rape Kesha and I have in no way experienced sexual intercourse with her,” and, “It’s unhappy that she would convert a contract negotiation into a little something so horrendous and untrue.” In courtroom, his legal professionals succeeded in acquiring Kesha’s suit dismissed for the reason that of jurisdiction and a statute of limitations. He is now suing her for defamation.

Outsiders just can’t know the reality about what happened among Luke and Kesha. But they can consider note that a lot of other artists have said—including less than oath—that they no for a longer time get the job done with Luke for good reasons unrelated to Kesha’s claims. Clarkson, reflecting on her personal “demeaning” activities with him, mentioned that Luke is “not a superior human being.” Pink used identical language—“He’s not a fantastic person”—and added, “He does not do the right factor when offered ample chances to do so.” The pop star Bebe Rexha talked about being belittled and intimidated during a writing session at Luke’s house. Even defenders portray him as callous and cutthroat. “Luke’s an asshole—everybody is familiar with it,” a higher-level sector determine told Selection last year. “But I never assume he’s a rapist.” (When asked about these promises, Luke’s lawyer and a label agent did not give remark.)

Remaining an “asshole” is indeed not the same as staying an abuser, and the audio entire world can be a vicious position, but it is putting that most superior-profile, at this time functioning producers really do not have a standing like Luke’s. No a person is, for example, on report complaining in this kind of a fashion about Max Martin (a former Luke collaborator), Mike WiLL Manufactured-It, or Jack Antonoff. The negative buzz around Luke may possibly make some people today more sympathetic to Kesha’s claims—but it also will make it easy to conclude, even without the need of being specific of her statements, that the music industry would be much healthier without having Luke in a posture of affect.

For a very little even though, the sector itself appeared to concur. Right after Kesha submitted her accommodate, superstars this sort of as Cyrus and Perry stopped operating with Luke. Sony New music distanced by itself from him and his label (which he still left as CEO in 2017). The 2018 Grammys utilized Kesha’s cathartic, post-lawsuit one “Praying” for a #MeToo-themed ensemble overall performance. Luke nevertheless experienced a foothold in the business, nevertheless. He stored making tunes for lessen-wattage performers—Ne-Yo, Tyga—and developing his publishing organization, Prescription Music. He also took to using pseudonyms as a producer, which includes Designed in China, Tyson Trax, or Loctor Duke.

Maybe most noteworthy, he saved guiding aspiring stars he had signed. When outcry erupted about the dance-pop diva Kim Petras doing work with him, she spoke of her “positive experience with Dr. Luke,” but explained “that does not negate or dismiss the working experience of others or suggest that many perspectives are unable to exist at as soon as.” This is the solution that his collaborators—artistic and professional—often choose: asserting Luke’s chillness in their individual interactions, without having commenting on particular allegations.

Doja Cat’s beliefs about her producer, by contrast, are practically entirely unclear. She’d been a 17-12 months-old SoundCloud musician when Dr. Luke signed her in 2013, months ahead of Kesha submitted her fit. Whether Doja is however certain to the agreement she signed back then isn’t publicly regarded, but judging by precedent, she may perhaps perfectly be: The deal Kesha signed with Luke in 2005 was enforceable as of 2017, and it stipulated that he develop 6 tracks on every one of her albums. Supporters speculate that Doja is obligated to document with Luke, but she has not commented to the media—including in reaction to my emailed inquiry despatched to a publicist—about him, irrespective of whether by selection or for contractual good reasons.

In the finish, Doja Cat has been at minimum as integral to Luke’s modern trajectory as he has been to hers. Her 2018 debut studio album, Amala, came out through Kemosabe Documents but turned a industrial good results only just after Doja herself engineered a viral moment with the joke monitor “Mooo!,” which functions the memorable refrain “Bitch, I’m a cow.” The song is hilarious and catchy, and Doja explained she established it on a lark in her bedroom. As tens of millions of views poured in for the songs video, “Mooo!” drew her the type of focus that would-be superstars desire of. Amala’s subsequent reissue highlighted the initial-ever Luke-made Doja track, “Juicy.” In 2020, her sophomore album’s breezy single “Say So” turned the initially Scorching 100 No. 1 hit of her small career, and Dr. Luke’s initial No. 1 because Kesha took him to court.


Listeners have agency in how they respond to sagas these kinds of as this one—though pop music’s on-line discourse does make it really hard to coherently navigate factual disputes and moral conflict. When admirer armies line up to protect or attack distinct stars, assault accusations or cases of hate speech can become mere ammunition for Twitter battles that are eventually about clout. The catchall term canceled papers in excess of versions and gradations of misconduct—and turns discussions about broader social challenges into discussions about own lapses and specific career outcomes.

Doja Cat herself offers an illustration of these confusion. Several content articles list Dr. Luke as just a single of a selection of explanations why she is “controversial.” In the previous, she has tweeted anti-gay slurs, titled a track with a vicious anti-Black slur, and hung out in chat rooms that racists regular. She has apologized for and given explanations about a great deal of this, and the impact I get is that Doja Cat is—like a lot of young adults—emerging from paying her adolescence steeped in online troll scenes. Deciding upon not to pay attention to her new music does not clearly assist take care of the challenges that define people particular scandals. Her ties to Dr. Luke are a independent concern, on the other hand. If you have examine and listened to so several testimonies by girls decrying manipulative male moguls over the many years, it helps make sense to stay clear of contributing to his return to prominence.

But how particularly need to an uneasy listener opt out? Do you stay clear of the producer’s comprehensive catalog, from “Since U Been Gone” to Doja Cat’s most up-to-date singles? Do you scrutinize each individual song’s credits list for each individual trace of his even now-influential publishing company? Do you pick as a result of World Her for the tracks that never right involve him? Distinct folks will navigate these queries in different ways some may well even conclude that regardless of what they pick out to do does not seriously make any difference. On one particular hand, streaming has produced the relationship amongst listeners’ choices and a musician’s bottom line a lot more immediate than ever: When you play a music, you apportion additional dollars to its creator. On the other hand, that apportionment amounts to a fraction of a portion of a cent.

Even so, you have to believe that that resistance can incorporate up. It chips away at that detail that pop stars and their collaborators purpose for—a feeling of ubiquity, broad enchantment, and consensus. Though most listeners do not know who will make their new music, the world-wide-web has created substantial portions of the general public additional clued in than ever (see: Taylor Swift persuading her admirer base to stream new variations of her outdated music to undercut her small business rivals). Gatekeepers and celebs could attempt to tune out their critics, but sustained scrutiny is difficult to fully dismiss. When Saweetie was nominated for an award a short while ago, an Involved Press reporter asked her about performing with Dr. Luke. “I feel like this is turning into an job interview that is having the aim and the light-weight off of this kind of an amazing night,” she replied—PR talk that, she have to now dread, she will have to recycle in each interview.

As with so a lot of social troubles, policing the audio business definitely must be the work of establishments, not persons. But personal ethics are personalized ethics. When it comes to Luke, my possess rule is to stay away from new songs he generated or wrote—the music that may perhaps go him from persona non grata back to sought-right after hitmaker. This features a ton of Doja’s well-known music: “Say So,” “Juicy,” “Kiss Me Much more,” “Need to Know,” and “You Proper,” plus her duet with Saweetie, “Best Good friend.” I also do what I can to advise his listeners of the context guiding his tunes. (Certainly, I have been the person complaining about Kim Petras’s audio at dwelling functions.) Doja Cat’s talents are simple, but you can recognize them on tunes that really do not require Luke. In the vicinity of the top of my summer season playlist is Bebe Rexha’s addictive “Baby, I’m Jealous,” which capabilities commonly fun verses by Doja. Rexha has said that deciding on not to do the job with Luke was one particular of the best selections she ever produced. Listening to her duet with Doja may not be justice, but at least it does not sense like injustice.